Air Drying: Earlier the most usual method
of drying veneers. These were placed as single or double
leaves in so-called stacking carriages and were dried
completely without any technical aids or fan. Very time-consuming.
Natural drying has been replaced by jet drying.
Air-Dried Lumber: Solid wood which has
been air dried without kiln drying.
Architectural Grade: Top quality log
and veneer length over 2.65 m.
Backing: The lowest grade veneer which
is generally only used yetas cross-band veneers or for
non-visible surfaces. Sold generally by the ton.
Backing Board: The boards which remain
after slicing wood. Much appreciated as solid wood because
these generally include the standing years and thus are
relatively free of tension.
Birdseye: The term given to eye-shaped
marking of the veneer, especially in the case of Birdseye
Block Mottle Figure: An irregular form
of figuring which runs over the complete surface of the
Blue Stain: Blue stains on the surface
of the veneer which occur through insufficient water extraction
when slicing (too low heating capacity on the pressure
bar or when slicing too fast) because water remaining
on the surface of the veneer turns blue through oxidation.
Book: The most commonly used term for
a bundle of veneer, especially by carpenters. This term
comes from the veneer leaves following one after the other
like pages in a book.
Book Match: A procedure in the further
processing of veneers by which the successive veneer leaves
are glued alternately with the front and rear side to
retain a mirror-inverted sequence.
Buckle: Corrugation caused in the veneer
leaf when drying as a result of different drying runs
and irregular annual ring development within the veneer
The veneer has to be flattened again to make the veneer
Bundle: Cut bundles of veneer generally
containing 24 or 32 consecutive leaves in cutting sequence.
Burl: A term for veneers which are produced
from the burr or burl formation. Differentiation is generally
made between burl or burr growth above ground (Elm, Ash,
Oak) and root burl or burr growth which develops below
ground in the root (Californian Walnut, Madrona, Vavone,
Burl-Log: Term used for a burly trunk,
log or veneer cut.
Butt: The bottom end of a log or veneer
frequently featuring coarse annual ring development and
undesired color variations caused by its rootstock.
Canker: A disease of the European Oak
which destroys the structure in the veneer and appears
as open defect in advance stadium. Very difficult to recognize
in the bark.
Cathedral Structure: Much sought after
structure in crown cut bundles. Considered to be very
Chatter Marks: Deviation in veneer thickness
caused through vibration of the veneer block on the slicing
machine or by wrong pressure setting on the machine, showing
on the veneer leaf as regularly distributed cross running
strips. The veneer block vibrates when the log is not
firmly clamped flat on the cutting table.
Clipping: The clipping of veneers on
the veneer cutter whether the veneers are in their initial
or in final production.
Cluster: Only partially burled logs.
Complete Flitch or Flitch Stock: Veneers
which are not only produced from one log but where all
leaves remain in their exact original log sequence.
Compression Wood, Pressure Wood: The
zones given in soft wood through irregular annual ring
structure which are particularly hard and, therefore,
cause difficulties when slicing the veneer.
Condensate: The tannic acid which is
yellow in color and deposits on the surface of the veneer
when it is dried too sharply.
Cross-Grain: Buckling of the veneers
given through irregular growth or through logs under high
tension. It shows itself also as darker coloring down
the annual rings.
Crotch: Crotch veneer figuring sometimes
termed "curl" which is manufactured from the
intersection of the limb or branch with the main trunk.
The quality is all the better the more precise and distinct
the curl or crotch and feather are.
Crown Cut: The first bundles from a log
when sliced over the heart. Produces the so-called cathedral
Curl: see Crotch
Curly Fishbone Figure: Typical figure
development especially in beech which is generally considered
to be degrading.
DIN: The standards valid in Germany for the production
of veneer. The standard thicknesses are laid down therein.
Divider: A strip of wood placed between
the veneers to increase the strength of a pallet or to
ensure the stability of the flitches stacked in log-form.
Also separates the different logs from each other.
Discoloration: Undesirable color variations
in the veneer, e.g. green stripes in European Cherry.
Drier Prints: Black patches are given
on the surface of the veneer caused by defective, uncleaned
or unserviced drier belts. These black patches cause problems
when sanding and treating the surface of veneers.
Door Length: Log and veneer lengths between
2.05 m and 2.40 m required by the door industry.
Egg Shape: A structure in the crown cut
bundle desired by the piano industry. Required by them
for the fronts and lids of their instruments.
Figur, Fiddleback, Fiddle: Clearly visible
and more or less regular streaks running across the grain
in different species of wood (e.g. in Sycamore, Macoré,
Pear Tree, Ash). The more regular these streaks are the
more valuable the veneer.
Fingered Heart: Irregularly developed
Flares: Irregular veneer marking which
generally is not desired.
Flake: The typical figuring of wood when
the pithrays are cut across, i.e. at an angle of 180 degrees
when slicing. This is particularly strongly pronounced
It is generally considered as inferior veneers except
from Brown Oak, Silky Oak or Plane for example, where
this figuring is in special demand.
Flashy Look: Expression for irregularly
alternating spiral grain which causes more or less irregular
markings in the veneer. Especially found in Black Cherry
Flat Cut: see Crown Cut
Flitch: see Log-End
Four Piece Match: Special method used
for burl veneers to produce highly decorative surfaces
and patterns. Four veneer leaves in succession are turned
twice and folded up once.
Furniture Grade: Veneer differing in
length from 1.00 m to 4.00 m within one log which can
be worked by the living room furniture industry.
Grading: Quality-related grading of veneers
and the pricing of the various grades.
Grading Price: Price determination for
a veneer log.
Gum: Black spots or patches which can
occur in Black Cherry veneer. They are not arranged in
a regular pattern but can be positioned quite differently
from one veneer leaf to the next.
Half Round Cut: Type of conversion on
the stay-log machine. Also called eccentric peeling.
Hairs: Fine hair streaks which particularly
occur in Pear and Maple. They can be distributed over
the entire surface of the veneer and are considered to
be degrading in quality.
Heavy Textured: The annual ring structure
of fast growing trees which produce the undesirable coarse
marking in the veneer.
Heart: The term used for the core wood
area in veneer which is different in color to the remaining
part of the veneer leaf.
Horizontal Slicer: A slicing machine
on which the counter movements of the log and knife are
Ingrown Bark, Inbark: Bark occurring
especially in burl or burr logs within the heart wood
which has been overgrown.
Jet Drier, Mesh Belt Jet Veneer Drier:
Veneer drying machine which dries the veneer in a continuous
operation using hot air.
Kiln: Equipment for artificial drying
of solid lumber with the help of computer-control.
Kiln-Dried Lumber: Solid wood which has been
artificially dried in a kiln.
Knot, Defect: Overgrown branch which leaves a
clearly distinct bark pattern. The earlier the tree has
got rid of its branch the less visible is this characteristic
in the bark.
Light Scratch: Very fine knife scratch
which disappears from the veneer when the surface is sanded
and as a result does not degrade the veneer.
Leaf: Veneer leaf
Log: The section of a tree that can be
sawn or used for veneer.
Log-End Flitch: Term used for a log or
part of a log in log or veneer form.
Log Run Parcel: A completely converted
log parcel which is offered and sold as veneer with all
its grades included in it.
Lumber Logs: Sawing quality logs.
Lumber: Already converted solid wood.
Mild Texture: Very fine and slow growing
wood which produces a beautiful, even marking in the veneer.
Minerals: Dark patches or pockets in
wood, especially occurring in the American Oak.
Miscut: Veneer defect caused in the processing,
generally leading to fluctuating veneer thicknesses.
Number of Leaves: The number of veneer
leaves in a bundle; generally 24 or 32 leaves.
Open Defect: Faults in veneer which produce
Panel Length: Log and veneer lengths
between 2.65 m and 3.20 m required by the paneling industry.
Quality generally not as good as bedroom furniture length.
Parcel: A quantity of veneer prepared
for the customer, often sorted into uniform qualities.
Partial Burl: see Cluster
Pepper: The thin black knots in yew veneer
which are the typical figuring of yew veneer. The more
pepper there is and the more regular this pepper is distributed
over the surface the more valuable the veneer.
Pin Knot: Fine, overgrown pin knots which
can only be seen with great difficulty on the bark. Appears
as a black streak at the end of the log.
Pommele: Comes from the French word "Pommelé"
(Pomme = Apple). The term given to a regular veneer marking
which resembles apples.
Pressure: Slicing fault which occurs
when the gap between the knife and the pressure bar is
too small or too large to clear the veneer. Different
thicknesses are given and to some extent bad cuts, too.
Pressure Bar: The bar opposite the knife.
The gap between the knife and pressure bar is slightly
narrower than the thickness of the veneer to generate
the necessary counterpressure for a smooth cut.
Press Drier: In this equipment the veneers
are pressed between large rotating drums in addition to
running through the jet drier to avoid waviness.
Quartered: Conversion of veneer logs
which have been quartered. Produces quarters and half
Quarters: The bundles from a log which
are given after opening the flitch (and, sometimes, cutting
out of the heart) where the annual rings are cut radially
at an angle of 90 degrees by the knife.
Typical stripy structure of the veneer.
Resin Pockets: Resin pockets in softwood
which produce holes in the veneer and are thus degrading.
Rift: Quartered veneer flitches converted
on the stay-log machine thus resulting in broad quarters
being in sequence.
Rift, also Faux-Quartier: Quartered flitches
which are sliced on the knife in a normal way. It produces
half crown and quarters.
Rotary Slicer: Veneer cutting machine
on which the log is clamped centrally when brought up
to the knife while rotating so that the veneer leaves
are peeled off spirally. Used for almost all burl veneers,
Birdseye Maple or Birch.
Root Burl: see Underground Burl
Rough Cut: When slicing veneers rough
patches are caused in the surface because of bad clamping
of the log, setting the machine wrongly or by too strong
fluctuations in texture.
The cause can also be that the flitch is not hot enough.
SAP: The outer cell layer of the wood
between bark and heartwood. The supply of water and nutrients
to the tree is only through the outer row of sap cells.
The remaining layers of cells in the sapwood only serve
to store water. Color offset in sapwood. The sapwood is
cut away in veneers.
Scratch: A notch which runs across the
veneer leaf caused by a faulty knife. Typical slicing
fault which makes the further use of the veneer questionable.
Fine knife scratches are eliminated by grinding the knife.
Sequence: The sequence of veneer leaves within
a bundle and the complete log.
Single Bundles: Bundles of veneer taken
out of their regular sequence within the log so that the
sequence is no longer given. Generally lower qualities
Shake: Cracks in the lumber which follow
the course of the annual rings. Part of trunks with this
defect are not suitable for producing veneer or sawn timber.
Short Length: Log and veneer between
0.80 m and 2.00 m in length.
Slab, Offcut: First side board of the
round trunk which is cut off when preparing for slicing,
generally used for firing or as waste wood.
Slip Match: A method of further processing
veneers by which the consecutive leaves are only glued
with the front side.
Stacked in Log Form: The presentation
of veneers stacked in their original log form.
Stain: Color changes in the log when
same has been stored too long. Direct radiation from the
sun or too dry an atmosphere furthers this development.
This is why logs for storage are waxed on the ends or
sprinkled with water to avoid this development.
Starter Bundles: The first bundles cut
from a log.
Stay-Log: Special veneer cutting machine
in which the line of cut sweeps across the growth rings
in a circular direction to give eccentric cutting.
Stripy: More or less clearly contrasting
color stripes in the veneer which are generally considered
as degrading. Known above all in the European Oak.
Sugar, Hairs: see Hairs
Tan Bark: Water containing tannin acid
in Oak logs which causes very dark coloring. Moreover,
Oak bark is also not suitable for mulching because of
its high tannin acid content.
Tension: Differences in density occur
in a trunk through different growth zones and growth speeds
(weatherside) which can lead to tension in the log. When
a tree is felled cracking as a result of tension can occur
making its use as veneer questionable. Problem especially
Tegernsee Custom: A recognized standard
work used by the wood industry in Germany in which the
general regulations for the sawing and veneer industries
are laid down (i.e. quality designations for sawn timber,
tolerances regarding veneer thickness and leaves with
Thick Cut: Veneers which are produced
in other thicknesses than those laid down in the DIN Standard.
Usual thicknesses are 0.9 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm and
2.5 mm. Larger thicknesses are usually produced as sawn
veneers, i.e. cut on the block bandsaw.
Top End: Top end of a log (trunk or veneers).
Top Grade Log: Used to express a particularly
high quality of a log.
To Grind The Knife: Small nicks and burrs
on the knife blade are made smooth by using a grindstone.
To Handle: Clipping and bundling of veneers
after drying in preparation for sale. Also cutting out
defects and clipping to length.
To Split, To Open: The cutting out of
the heart of a log when defects or rough patches occur
To Sort, To Grade: Cutting a log to the
required length and/or the desired method of slicing.
Tree Burl: Burl wood in which the burl
is developed above ground in the tree. Such burls are
Oak, Ash, Poplar, Elm.
True Quarter: The cutting of the log
into four quarters. In the case of Oak this gives a higher
portion of veneers with fine flakes. However, the yield
is generally smaller than when converting in other ways.
Turning Veneers, Slip Veneers: The presentation
of a log which is shown bundle by bundle.
Twist: Spiral-shaped growth of a tree
caused by external influences, for example, wind. Slicing
problems can occur through the annual rings breaking away
from each other thus causing open spots where the spiral
grain is strongly twisted.
Underground Burl: Burl log where the
burl development is in the root and the burl is either
completely or partially under the ground. These logs have
to be dug out to obtain them, an operation which is generally
done by hand in order not to damage high quality burls.
Underground burls are Myrtle, Walnut, Maple and Vavone
or Redwood Burl.
Vat: The pit used for steaming or cooking
logs. Earlier it used to be brick-built, today such vats
are generally lined with steel or aluminum to make the
pit more durable.
Vertical Slicer: Vertical slicer on which
the log and knife counter movements are carried out vertically.
Void of Grain: Broad, structureless areas
in crown cut bundles between their annual rings if the
latter are coarse.
Wavy Grain: Wavy marking of the veneer
which is given through such annual rings.
Wrapping: A process to "wrap"
three-dimensional areas (profiles, curved edges, etc.)
with veneers. To some extent this has replaced the molded
edges made of solid wood.
Wrong Pricing: Price assessment of a
log which is not conform with market prices.
Yellow Gum: Yellowish brown patches in
American Black Cherry, which are considered to be degrading
because they are still visible after surface treatment.
Industrial Plywood, Inc.